Waugh in Abyssinia: Was He Right or Wrong?


Earlier in November, in Italy, the mayor and two town councillors of the town of Affile near Rome were sentenced to prison for using public money in 2012 to commission a memorial of Rodolfo Graziani, the Marshal in charge of the Italian invasion in Abyssinia in 1936 who later became a minister of defence to Benitto Mussolini’s fascist government from 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

Evelyn Waugh met Graziani during his war correspondent visit to Abyssinia in the summer of 1936. He described the meeting in Addis Ababa During the First Days of the Italian Empire, Part 2 of Chapter 6 of his travel book Waugh in Abyssinia (1936):

‘He gave me twenty minutes. I have seldom enjoyed an official audience more. His French was worse than mine, but better than my Italian. Too often when talking to minor fascists one finds a fatal love of oratory. …There was no nonsense of that kind about Graziani. He was like the traditional conception of an English admiral, frank, humorous and practical. He asked where I had been, what I had been, what I wanted to see. Whenever my requests were reasonable he gave his immediate consent. If he had to refuse anything he did so directly and gave his reasons. He did not touch on general politics or the ethics of conquest. He did not ask me to interpret English public opinion…I left with the impression of one of the most amiable and sensible men I had met for a long time.’ Waugh also wrote about the meeting in his diary: Thursday 27 August 1936, ‘Very fresh and business like. No Fascist speeches about the Roman civilization and the wickedness of sanctions. (The Diaries of Evelyn Waugh, ed. Michael Davie, 1976).

Graziani was sentenced to nineteen years imprisonment for war crimes in 1948 but served only two years and died in 1955. His memoir, which covers the invasion of Abyssinia, Una vita per l’Italia was published in Italy in 1998. Historians continue to argue about the extend of the damaged caused by the use of chemical gas in Abyssinia on his orders with the exact number of victims remains unconfirmed to this day with some claiming they were thousands. Evelyn Waugh wrote: ‘Gas was used but accounted for only eighteen lives.’ (Waugh in Abyssinia, 1936).

Waugh and ‘Works of Feeling’ at the Royal Academy of Arts’ Library

The Royal Academy of Arts in London is holding an exhibition ‘Works of Feeling: Pre-Raphaelite Book Illustration’ in its Library Print Room (free). The 42 black and white wood engraved illustrations include four by Gabriel Dante Rossetti (1828-1882). His life and art was the subject of Waugh’s first book, Rossetti: His Life and Works, (1928). I had this connection on my mind when I went to the RA. The works are displayed with taste on the walls of the small entry to the library on the second floor and also in four glassed cases. After exploring the exquisite engravings of Millais, Burne-Jones, Rossetti, Solomon, Hunt, Sandys, Whistler and Poynter, I decided to inquire about Waugh and Rossetti and asked if there was a copy of his book in the library. But there was no card with his name in the hand- written Rossetti catalogue of that period.

Waugh wrote extensively about Rossetti’s illustrations in part ‘III. The Aesthetes’of his biography. Interestingly enough, a story he wrote then about how difficult it was for the Daziel Brothers workshop to manage Rossetti’s illustrations in Poems of Alfred Tennyson, (1857) is covered in the Introduction to the current exhibition by Amanda-Jane Doran, a contemporary art writer. It did feel that the new edition of Waugh’s biography of Rossetti in The Complete Works of Evelyn Waugh, Volume 16 (September 2017) would fill a gap in the RA collection.

An Oxford Quarrel: Evelyn Waugh and Hugh Trevor-Roper

Note: This blog was originally published on the site of the University of Leicester.

Ahead of our Waugh’s Enemies event on Monday 25 September, Milena Borden gives a brief history of Waugh’s hostile relationship with Hugh Trevor-Roper – and asks what it tells us about Oxford’s post-war battle of ideas.

Posted by University of Leicester in Waugh and Words on September 19, 2017

There is no shortage of writing on the feud between Evelyn Waugh and Hugh Trevor-Roper. Most of it has tended to focus on Waugh’s hostile letters to Trevor-Roper and their incompatible characters. But what about looking into the story as a guide to the battle of academic ideas in Oxford after the end of the Second World War?

The son of a country doctor, Trevor-Roper read for two degrees, Classics and History, at Christ Church (1932 – 1937), became a Research Fellow of Merton College in 1938 and from 1957 until 1980 was Regius Professor of Modern History at Christ Church.

Historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, pictured in 1975. Source: Wikicommons

During the Second World War he was a code-breaker and also became an expert on Germany. One year before his retirement, he accepted to be Master of Peter House at Cambridge. In 1980 Trevor-Roper concluded his valedictory lecture with the words of Evelyn Waugh during one of their public spats twenty-six years previously: ‘One honourable course is open to Mr Trevor-Roper. He should change his name and seek a livelihood at Cambridge.’ He expressed regret that Waugh was no longer alive to enjoy his victory. Trevor-Roper was an admirer of Waugh as a prose writer, but was afraid to meet him in person because of their intense intellectual animosity.

Trevor-Roper’s first book The Last Days of Hitler (1947) became famous. It was enthusiastically reviewed and praised by established Oxford historians including Alan Bullock, Lewis Namier and Lawrence Stone. But one aspect of his book provoked angry reactions in Catholic circles. It claimed that Goebbels, the Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany, learned how to manipulate knowledge during his Jesuit education. Trevor-Roper also wrote that Himmler was like Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, known for his role in the Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei affairs, because they both were kind to animals.

Trevor-Roper’s The Last Days of Hitler (1947) erroneously claimed Goebbels was educated by Jesuits.

Waugh first wrote to Trevor-Roper privately and then made a public accusation in The Tablet. He accused him of seeking to promote his own prejudice in a sensational book: ‘There was not the smallest reason why Mr. Trevor-Roper should introduce Catholic theologians into this nasty story…They are dragged in ignorantly, maliciously and irrelevantly.’ But most importantly, it was Waugh, who first suggested that Trevor-Roper should make a correction in the next edition of the book. At the end, the New York publisher of The Last Days of Hitler demanded changes under the pressure of American Catholics and Trevor-Roper made some corrections in the second edition of 1950. In its preface, he specifically apologised for a factual inaccuracy: ‘…I must admit an error in my description of Goebbels. I stated that he was educated by the Jesuits. Though this is widely believed and repeated, I am satisfied that it is untrue, and that Goebbels learnt that brilliant casuistry that could distinguish between “concrete truth” and “poetic truth” from other sources.’

So, what does this quarrel tell us about Waugh, Oxford, and the bigger question – ‘What is history?’. Is it factual, unemotional and secular or is it inductive and tainted with beliefs, and religious faith? Waugh, a devout Catholic, argued against the idea that fascism could be linked to his religion, whereas Trevor-Roper – a staunch anti-Catholic – understood and accepted criticism only if it was on the ground of academic accuracy. Waugh extended his absolute disdain for the historical empiricism of C. R. M. F. Cruttwell, his history tutor at Oxford, to The Last Days of Hitler, the book, which A. J. P. Taylor called ‘a delight for historian and layman alike’. The quarrel reached a point where all could enjoy the infinite view of history debates at Oxford.

At the time of posting there are still a few places available for Waugh’s Enemies. Visit our eventbritepage now to join Alexander Waugh, Ann Pasternak Slater and Barbara Cooke in picking over Waugh’s hit-list.


Adam Sisman, Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Biography, 2010.

Martin Stannard, Evelyn Waugh: No Abiding City 1939 – 1966, Volume II, 1993.

The Tablet, 28 June, 1947.

H. R. Trevor-Roper, The Last Days of Hitler, 1947; Second Edition, 1950.